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Glossary

Click the arrow to the right of each letter to expand a list of terms that begin with the corresponding letter.

  • A

    Accommodate. To make room for or provisions for something that is specifically intended to occur.

    Action (Community Action Guide). Suggested, measurable step to be taken to implement an Action Statement. Actions are found in the Action Plan of a Community Action Guide, along with potential leaders for each step and a timeline of when it should occur in the process.  In the context of the Community Action Guide, the activity is typically to be undertaken by a member(s) of the community, although some activity by a broader public entity (such as the County) may also be involved.

    Action (Implementation Plan). A specific, measurable step that needs to be taken to meet stated objectives. An action is not mere compliance with the law or a commonly adopted or accepted practice or protocol. An action is short in duration and is meant to be updated and replaced once action has been taken. In the context of the County Implementation Plan, the activity is typically to be undertaken by the County or another public entity.

    Action Plan (Community Action Guide). A set of focus statements, action statements, and actions (detailed or suggested outline), intended for community members and stakeholders to use in improving their community.

    Action Statement (Community Action Guide). Measurable statements providing critical information on a program, initiative or project to complete.

    Advocate. To openly support and promote an action, objective, or goal; also to speak on behalf of an individual or group.

    Adaptive reuse. A method by which a building is adapted/modified to a different use from its original use, while its general physical form is retained. See also historic rehabilitation for historical buildings.

    Agency. A governmental entity, department, office, or administrative unit responsible for carrying out regulations.

    Agriculture. Use of land for the production of food and fiber, including the growing of crops and/or the grazing of animals on natural prime or improved pasture land.

    Agricultural preserve. An agricultural preserve defines the boundary of an area within which a local government will enter into contracts with land owners. Only land located within an agricultural preserve is eligible for a Williamson Act contract. Preserves are regulated by rules and restrictions designated in the resolution to ensure that the land within the preserve is maintained for agricultural or open space use. See also Williamson Act.

    Allow. To be open to something occurring but without any particular effort to make it happen.

    Always. The action will apply to future decisions without exception.

    Annexation. The means by which an incorporated city or town extends its corporate boundaries. Annexation of unincorporated land into an incorporated city or town is initiated by a petition of affected land owners or registered voters, or by resolution from the incorporated city or town. The process of annexation is overseen by the Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO).

    Analyze. To methodically examine the desirability or feasibility of something, with a view toward letting the evidence determine the appropriate level of commitment.

    Aspirations statement (Community Action Guide). A written narrative illustrating the community’s desired look and function once the Community Focus Statements and Action Statements are fully implemented. This is a long term view of 10 to 20 years. The Aspirations Statement serves as a foundation for developing Community Focus Statements and Action Statements.

    Aspire. To direct one’s ambitions toward achieving something.

    Augment. To add to something that is already in place to make it more desirable, functional, or beneficial.

    Automatic aid. Automatic aid is assistance that is dispatched automatically by a contractual agreement between two emergency service departments, communities, or districts when an emergency occurs. It differs from mutual aid, which is arranged on an as-needed and requested basis.

    Avoid. To not enable something that will lead to an undesirable outcome.

  • B

    Bicycle facilities. On- and off-street spaces delineated for safe use by bicycles, designated in one of four classes:

    • Class I (shared use or bike path). A bikeway physically separated from any street or highway. Shared Use Paths may also be used by pedestrians, skaters, wheelchair users, joggers, and other non-motorized users.
    • Class II (bike lane). A portion of roadway that has been designated by striping, signaling, and pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists.
    • Class III (bike route). A generic term for any road, street, path, or way that in some manner is specifically designated for bicycle travel regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles, or are to be shared with other transportation modes.
    • Class IV (separated bikeway). A bikeway for the exclusive use of bicycles and includes a required separation between the bikeway and the through vehicular traffic. The separation may include, but is not limited to, grade separation, flexible posts, inflexible posts, inflexible barriers, or on-street parking.

    Buffer / buffer zone. An area of land, structure, feature, or design treatment separating two uses that acts to soften or mitigate the effects of one use on the other.

  • C

    California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). A state law (California Public Resources Code Section 21000 et seq.), requiring state and local agencies to regulate activities with consideration for environmental protection. If a proposed activity has the potential for a significant adverse environmental impact, an environmental impact report (EIR) must be prepared and certified as to its adequacy before taking action on the proposed project.

    California Native American Heritage Commission (NAHC). The governor-appointed nine-member commission charged with identifying and cataloging places of special religious or social significance to Native Americans and known graves and cemeteries of Native Americans on private lands. The NAHC also performs other duties regarding the preservation and accessibility of sacred sites and burials and the disposition of Native American human remains and burial items.

    Capital Improvements Program (CIP). A program, administered by a city or county government that schedules permanent improvements, usually for a minimum of five years in the future, to fit the projected fiscal capability of the local jurisdiction. The CIP is generally reviewed annually for conformance to and consistency with the Policy Plan.

    Capacity. The ability to provide a service or fulfill an obligation in the desired manner or at a desired level of service.

    Cluster. Residential development in which a number of dwelling units are placed in closer proximity than usual, or are attached.

    Collaborate. To intentionally, willingly work together toward a common objective or goal.

    Community action guide. A set of potential actions community members (within a specific community planning area or CPA) can take to remain and become the type of community that current and future residents desire. The guides include action plans that place a focus on self-reliance, grass-roots action, and implementation, allowing the community to take the lead in moving actions forward.

    Furthermore, the guides frame these potential actions in a set of community-driven values and aspirations generated based on public input from community members and stakeholders. While some actions will require coordination with, approval from, or assistance by the County, many others can be undertaken without County involvement. The guides may also be augmented by a set of generalized actions presented in a Community Development Toolkit.

    Community assets. Public libraries, public museums, arts and cultural facilities, community/senior centers, and similar facilities open to and for the benefit of the public.

    Community character / community identity. The history, culture(s), natural features, and human-built features that a community’s residents value and wish to celebrate and maintain. Community character can also be defined as the sum of attributes and assets that make a community unique and establish a sense of place for its residents.  Some attributes and assets are tangible, like a unique main street area, while others are intangible, like a general sense of tranquility associated with the natural environment.

    Community facilities district (CFD).  A special funding and financing mechanism that is formed when the property owners in a geographic area agree to impose a special property tax on the land to fund public improvements and services. Based on future tax revenue, CFDs (aka Mello-Roos) seek public financing through bonds. A Mello-Roos tax must be approved by 2/3 of the voters in a proposed district.

    Community planning area (CPA).  A planning area identified by the County of San Bernardino as an area where policies, standards, and guidelines may vary, based on local context and community character. A CPA is also used to define the boundaries for community action guides.  See also Community Planning Continuum and the types of CPAs.

    Community Planning Continuum (CPC). The CPC is a system of community planning activities and documents intended to guide local expectations for County services and set a clear direction for the future of unincorporated communities. The CPC is implemented by both County government (Policy Plan and Implementation Plan) and community residents and stakeholders (Community Action Guide and Community Development Toolkit). The resulting plans, guides, maps, and tools are web-based, living documents that will be updated periodically to reflect progress and change. The CPC includes a hierarchy of community planning areas (CPAs) that will ensure that planning details, tools, and resources match the conditions and needs of each community:

    • Detailed CPAs. Includes communities that contain, or have the potential for, a variety of housing opportunities and supporting uses, such as commercial and industrial businesses, schools, a library, parks and recreation facilities, and religious and civic organizations.
    • Framework CPAs. Includes communities that are primarily characterized by single-family residential properties and a limited number of supporting uses, such as a school, post office, and commercial businesses.
    • Foundation CPAs. Includes communities that are primarily characterized by single-family residential properties. Residents of these communities typically drive to nearby towns or cities for employment, shopping, entertainment, education, and recreation opportunities.
    • Fundamental CPAs. Includes communities that are primarily characterized by open space or agriculture with a scattering of residential homes and/or highway commercial uses, or an area where growth is constrained by adjacent land ownership, such as federal lands and state lands.

    Community services district (CSD). A special funding and financing mechanism that is formed as an independent, self-governed entity that can provide locally adequate levels of public facilities and services, an effective form of governance for combining two or more special districts that serve overlapping or adjacent territory into a multifunction special district, a form of governance that can serve as an alternative to the incorporation of a new city, and a transitional form of governance as the community approaches cityhood.

    Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP). A plan developed in the collaborative framework established by the Wildland Fire Leadership Council and agreed to by state, tribal, and local government, local fire department, other stakeholders, and federal land management agencies managing land in the vicinity of the planning area. A CWPP identifies and prioritizes areas for hazardous fuel reduction treatments and recommends the types and methods of treatment on Federal and non-Federal land that will protect one or more at-risk communities and essential infrastructure and recommends measures to reduce structural ignitability throughout the at-risk community. A CWPP may address issues such as wildfire response, hazard mitigation, community preparedness, or structure protection.

    Compatible. In relation to use, the ability for two or more uses to coexist without conflict, with minimal conflict that can be mitigated, or in a beneficial manner. When used in relation to a structure, indicates that the structure is built so that its appearance is similar to that of the principal unit to which the structure is accessory or to the general character of the neighborhood or community with regards to color, materials, construction, lighting, signs, or the emission of sounds, noises and vibrations.  See also incompatible.

    Complete streets network. A system of on- and off-street facilities (e.g., sidewalks, bike lanes, and trails), that enable all users of all ages and abilities to navigate within or through a community area, with an emphasis on mobility focus areas. The system can consist of one or more facility type based on the intended users and access requirements. Individual facilities may overlap or not, serve all or just some users, and be contiguous or disconnected. Complete streets facilities and improvements are subject to physical constraints presented by the local context and financial feasibility limitations.

    Comply with. To follow specified existing ordinances, regulations or procedures.

    Complement / complementary. Combining or coexisting (e.g., two buildings or land uses) in such a way as to enhance or emphasize the qualities of each other.

    Concurrent. Services, facilities, activities or other things that are provided or are occurring at the same time as something else.

    Consider. To remain open to and evaluate a range of possible actions or outcomes as part of a decision.

    Consistent. To be or act in harmony or aligned with something; see also inconsistent.

    Consolidate. To bring together aspects, features, or components of a system or locale that can serve better in a consolidated form, compared to existing or provided separately.

    Construct. To build something: buildings, roads, channels, etc.

    Context. Local or regional environmental, social, and economic conditions.

    Context-sensitive. An approach, design, standard, or practice that is sensitive to and varies according to the local or regional environmental, social, and economic conditions.

    Contiguous land administration. Parcels that share a border and are under the ownership or administrative authority of a single entity, enabling more effective and efficient use, preservation, and/or management of the land and its resources and relationship to surrounding lands and resources.

    Continue. To maintain and/or resume an action.

    Cooperate. To work in a positive effort with another entity toward a mutually beneficial end.  Such work may take the form of direct action, passive support, or even inaction.

    Coordinate. To work in a positive effort with another entity in the process of conducting individual actions or initiatives that relate to each other and that can benefit from concurrent or cooperative activity.

    County service area (CSA). Separate legal entities authorized by California laws and formed by the County Board of Supervisors to fund the County’s provision of services, capital improvements and financial flexibility. They are formed and tailored to meet the specific needs of an area so that the property owners only pay for the services they that they want. Some of the unincorporated areas within San Bernardino County are exclusively serviced by these CSAs. CSA’s in the County are generalized characterized by small and remote service areas with primary customers being single family residential parcels.

    Critical and essential facilities. Public safety and services sites, structures and institutions that, if negatively impacted by an emergency, could exacerbate the problem, reduce a (generally public) entity’s ability to respond, or present a significant secondary problem or a problem greater than the original emergency.

    Cultural humility. An approach to public service (particularly medical and social services), where the professional service provider embraces a lifelong commitment to self-evaluation and lifelong learning about the cultures of their clients, working to learn with and from their clients to better serve individuals and defined populations.

  • D

    Dedicate. To offer or set aside for a specific program, action, or use; when in the context of land dedication, the land is generally set aside for public ownership, use, and/or operation or maintenance.

    Density (dwelling units per acre or du/ac). The number of residential units allowed per acre for a given area of the unincorporated county based on the Policy Plan land use category. The permitted Policy Plan density guides the maximum density for corresponding zoning designations as described in the Development Code and applied to a specific property.

    Design. To conceive in advance the size, shape, qualities, appearance, open space and other attributes of a proposed development, building and related improvements, generally rendered in graphic forms that communicate the anticipated outcome.

    Determine. To calculate in advance the nature or outcome of an anticipated action, situation, or proposal.

    Development Code. Title 8 of the San Bernardino County Code, intended to implement the County Policy Plan by classifying and regulating the uses of land and structures within unincorporated San Bernardino County; by preserving and protecting the County’s important agricultural, cultural, natural, open space and scenic resources; and by protecting and promoting the public health, safety, comfort, convenience, prosperity, and general welfare of residents and businesses in the County.

    Discourage. To openly deter (or attempt to deter) an individual, group, or organization from doing something.

    Discretionary. An action taken by a governmental agency that calls for the exercise of judgment in deciding whether to approve and/or how to carry out a project.

    Dwelling Unit. A room or group of rooms (including sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation facilities, but not more than one kitchen), which constitutes an independent housekeeping unit, occupied or intended for occupancy by one household on a long term basis.

  • E

    Earthquake fault zone / Alquist Priolo (AP) earthquake fault zone. Earthquake fault zones are regulatory zones around active faults. On the Earthquake Fault Zone Maps, the zones are shown as polygons that encompass mapped fault traces. The zones vary in width, but average about one-quarter mile wide.

    Economic development service providers. State, federal, utility, education, and not-for-profit organization partners that help fund economic development activities; and public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that provide assistance to businesses such as small business development centers.

    Economic value (mining). A mineral resource has economic value if it is financially feasible to extract and sell the mineral resource in the current market.

    Encourage. To promote, support, or champion a concept or action; such support may be in terms of political support and coordination, staff resources, and/or financial resources.

    Enhance. To improve existing conditions in quality, value, or characteristic.

    Environmental Justice Focus Area. See focus area.

    Equitable. A condition or treatment that is fair and impartial.

    Establish. To bring something into being that does not currently exist.

    Explore. To search for or examine the nature of a possibility before a commitment is made.  Similar to analyze.

    Expand. To increase in detail, extent, number, volume, or scope.

  • F

    Facilitate. To make an action or process easier or to help bring about.

    Fair share. An allocation of resources, costs, or fees considered equitable and proportional to the needs, impacts, or activity of an existing or proposed project.

    Farmland, Important. Refers to four of the eight classifications of land mapped by the California Department of Conservation.

    • Prime farmland. Land other has the best good combination of physical and chemical characteristics for the production of crops. It must have been used for the production of irrigated crops within the four years prior to the Important Farmland Map date produced by the State Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program.
    • Farmland of statewide importance. Land other than prime farmland that has a good combination of physical and chemical characteristics for the production of crops. It must have been used for the production of irrigated crops within the four years prior to the Important Farmland Map date produced by the State Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program.
    • Unique farmland. Land that does not meet the criteria for prime farmland or farmland of statewide Importance, that has been used for the production of specific high economic value crops at some time during the two update cycles prior to the Important Farmland Map date produced by the State Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program. It has the special combination of soil quality, location, growing season, and moisture supply needed to produce sustained high quality and/or high yields of a specific crop when treated and managed according to current farming methods.
    • Farmland of local importance. Farmlands that include areas of soils that meet all the characteristics of prime, statewide, or unique and which are not irrigated. It also includes farmlands not covered by above categories but of high economic importance to the community.

    Fault / active fault. A fracture in the crust of the earth along which rocks on one side have moved relative to those on the other side. Most faults are the result of repeated displacements over a long period of time. A fault trace is the line on the earth’s surface defining the fault. For the purposes of the Alquist Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, an active fault is one that has ruptured in the last 11,000 years. See earthquake fault zone.

    Feasible. Capable of being done, executed, or managed successfully taking into consideration social, physical, environmental, and/or economic factors.

    Feasible, technically. Capable of being implemented because the industrial, mechanical, or application technology exists.

    Feature. A noticeable or important characteristic, attribute, or aspect of something.

    Fire hazard severity zone. A designated area in which the type and condition of vegetation, topography, fire history, and other relevant factors demonstrate an increased possibility of uncontrollable wildland fire. As part of CAL FIRE’s responsibilities, it assigns fire severity—moderate, high, and very high—to areas in California for fire planning and suppression purposes.

    Fire responsibility areas. California’s wildlands have been divided into three zones or responsibility areas, depending on the agency with primary financial responsibility for addressing the prevention, suppression, and postfire recovery of fire. These include local responsibility area (LRA), state responsibility area (SRA), and federal responsibility area (FRA).

    • Local responsibility areas (LRAs). The areas of California where local jurisdictions (e.g., county or city/town fire departments, fire protection districts, and by CAL FIRE under contract to local government) are responsible for the prevention and suppression of wildfires.
    • State Responsibility Areas (SRAs). The areas of California where the State of California is financially responsible for the prevention and suppression of wildfires. SRA does not include lands within incorporated city/town boundaries or in federal ownership.
    • Federal Responsibility Areas (FRAs). The areas of California where the federal government has the primary financial responsibility for preventing and suppressing fires. These lands are generally protected by a variety of federal agencies.

    Finding(s). The result(s) of an investigation and the basis upon which decisions are made. Findings are used by government agents and bodies to justify action taken or a decision made by the entity.

    Fiscal sustainability. The County’s capacity to operate and maintain public facilities and to provide public services with a reasonable level of service using the revenue generated for the service or facility or revenue generated by the users or beneficiaries of the service or facility. Fiscal sustainability exists when the County has the financial capacity to operate and maintain public facilities and to provide public services in the short term and over the long term.

    Determination of the fiscal impacts of a project, program, policy, or other decision must account for:

    • Initial capital investments and startup costs;
    • Ongoing operations and maintenance over the long term;
    • Reasonable levels of service and expected or desired levels of service over the long-term;
    • Set-aside capital reserves for replacement, maintenance, and upgrades; and
    • Impacts to existing uses in incorporated and unincorporated areas, which may have secondary fiscal impacts.

    Fiscal or financial resiliency is related to fiscal sustainability and refers to the County’s capacity to continue providing reasonable levels of service for the operations and maintenance of public facilities and for the provision of public services during periods of economic and financial stress and during emergencies. Fiscal resiliency is typically achieved by minimizing the use of debt, maintaining adequate dedicated reserves, maintaining an appropriate level of unrestricted fund balance, long-term financial planning, disaster planning, and comprehensive risk management.

    Flood. Refers to the rising and overflowing of a body of water onto normally dry land that is often caused by storm events or breaches of flood control infrastructure. While there are many different types of flooding that are recognized for communities, the three common types of flooding in the county are alluvial fan, riverine, and urban flood:

    • Alluvial flood. Alluvial flooding occurs on the surface of an alluvial fan or similar landform that originates at the apex, and is characterized by high-velocity flows, active erosion, sediment transport, and deposition; and unpredictable flow paths. Alluvial fan flooding is depicted on a Flood Insurance Rate Map as Zone AO, with a flood depth and velocity.
    • Riverine flood. Riverine flooding occurs when excessive rainfall or heavy snow melt causes water to rise and overflow the edges of a river, bank, or channel. Flash flooding, a type of riverine flood, is characterized by an intense, high velocity torrent of water, often accompanied by debris, which occurs in a river channel with little to no warning.
    • Urban flooding. Urban flooding is caused when heavy rainfall creates a flood independent of an overflowing water body, such as when intense rain overwhelms the capacity of an urban drainage system. An urban flood is more common in areas that lack or have undersized drainage systems.

    Flood zone / flood hazard area. The Policy Plan displays and/or refers to the following simplified categories on flood hazard maps and in policies:

    • FEMA 100-year flood zone. An area mapped on a flood insurance rate map (FIRM) where a storm with a 1 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year can cause flood conditions. FIRMs are mapped under the Federal Agency Management Agency’s (FEMA) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
    • DWR 100-year flood zone. An area mapped by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that identify 100-year flood hazard areas using approximate assessment procedures. These floodplains are identified simply as flood prone areas without specific depths and other flood hazard data; they are not FEMA regulatory floodplain maps. The state conducts an Awareness Floodplain Mapping project to identify all pertinent flood hazard areas for areas that are not mapped under FEMA’s NFIP, and to provide the community and residents an additional tool in understanding potential flood hazards currently not mapped as a regulated floodplain.
    • FEMA 200-year flood zone. An area mapped (currently in limited areas) by DWR where a storm with a 0.5 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year can cause flood conditions
    • FEMA 500-year flood zone. An area mapped on a FIRM where a storm with a 0.2 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year can cause flood conditions. FIRMs are mapped under FEMA’s NFIP.

    Flood insurance rate map (FIRM). The official map on which FEMA has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. Flood hazard areas identified on the FIRM are identified as a special flood hazard area (SFHA). SFHAs are defined as the area that will be inundated by the flood event having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The 1-percent annual chance flood is also referred to as the base flood or 100-year flood. SFHAs are labeled as Zone A, Zone AO, Zone AH, Zones A1-A30, Zone AE, Zone A99, Zone AR, Zone AR/AE, Zone AR/AO, Zone AR/A1-A30, Zone AR/A, Zone V, Zone VE, and Zones V1-V30.

    Moderate flood hazard areas, labeled Zone B or Zone X (shaded) are also shown on the FIRM, and are the areas between the limits of the base flood and the 0.2-percent-annual-chance (or 500-year) flood. The areas of minimal flood hazard, which are the areas outside the SFHA and higher than the elevation of the 0.2-percent-annual-chance flood, are labeled Zone C or Zone X (unshaded).

    While the FIRM displays the above detailed flood hazard zones, the Policy Plan displays and refers to the following simplified categories from the FIRM on Policy Plan flood hazard maps and in policies: 100-year flood hazard and 500-year flood hazard.

    Floodplain. The area, adjacent to a watercourse or other body of water, subject to recurring floods. Floodplains may change over time as a result of natural processes, the characteristics of a watershed, or the construction of bridges or channels. Floodplain can also serve as a reference to areas subject to flooding and mapped under FEMA’s NFIP.

    Floor-area-ratio (FAR). The ratio of floor area to total net parcel area. FAR restrictions are used to limit the maximum floor area allowed on a site (including all structures on the site, except as excluded by the Development Code). The maximum floor area of all structures (measured from exterior wall to exterior wall) permitted on a site (excluding carports) shall be determined by multiplying the FAR by the total net parcel area of the site: FAR x total net parcel area = maximum allowable floor area.

    Focus area. A location where the County seeks to encourage and facilitate public improvements and private investment that lead to one of the following: increased mobility, community- and/or tourist-serving shops and services, employment opportunities, or the reuse and/or intensification of industrial development. The boundary of a focus area (excluding commercial focus area/franchise-restricted and environmental justice focus areas), is intended to convey the general location, but the actual boundary may be somewhat larger or smaller as determined during implementation efforts.

    • Commercial focus area. An area where the County seeks to encourage and facilitate public improvements and private investment that lead to increased community- and/or tourist-serving shops and services.
    • Commercial focus area/franchise-restricted. A defined commercial focus area where franchise businesses are not permitted. See franchise business.
    • Employment focus area. An area where the County seeks to encourage and facilitate public improvements and private investment that lead to increased commercial, office, or industrial employment opportunities (consistent with the Policy Plan and as permitted by the adopted Land Use Categories).
    • Environmental justice focus area. An area that is disproportionately affected by environmental pollution and other hazards that can lead to negative health effects, exposure, or environmental degradation. Such areas are determined by CalEnviroScreen composite scores in the upper quartile (census tracts with composite scores ranking above the 75th percentile). The term “environmental justice focus area” is to be interpreted the same as the term “disadvantaged community” and is understood in the context of Senate Bill 1000 (2016).
    • Industrial redevelopment focus area. An area where the County seeks to encourage and facilitate public improvements and private investment that increase reuse, redevelopment, and/or intensification of industrial development (consistent with the Policy Plan and as permitted by the adopted Land Use Categories).
    • Mobility focus area. An area where the County seeks to encourage and facilitate public improvements and private investment that lead to increased non-motorized accessibility and public safety. Mobility focus areas have a core with a high concentration (typically along corridors and/or at nodes), of two or more of the following: pedestrians; bicyclists; transit; retail, service, and office businesses; or medium density residential or higher.

    Focus statement (Community Action Guide). General direction towards realizing a community’s aspirations; a focus statement also helps to organize the Action Plan.

    Food insecurity. The state of being without reliable access to sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.

    Franchise business. All businesses in the retail trade, accommodation and food services, and other services as defined in the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), that have 11 or more establishments worldwide under the same trademark, service mark, or company brand name, regardless of ownership. Such establishments maintain two or more of the following features: a standardized array of merchandise, a standardized facade, a standardized decor and color scheme, uniform apparel, standardized signage, a trademark or a service mark. See commercial focus area/franchise-restricted.

    Fugitive dust. Small solid particles or liquid droplets (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometers or less or PM10), that come primarily from the earth’s soil and are suspended in the air by wind action and human activities.

    Fund. To make money available for a prescribed purpose; may be a one-time, periodic, or ongoing commitment.

    Funding and financing mechanism. A legislatively authorized public revenue tool covering a distinct geographical area in which revenues may be generated by properties to fund various public facilities and services.  Many of these mechanisms also allow for the issuance of debt.  Examples of funding and financing mechanisms can include: assessment district, contractual assessment district, business improvement district, community facility district, community services district, multifamily housing district, lighting and landscaping maintenance district, parking district, community revitalization and investment authority, and enhanced infrastructure finance district.

    The use of funding and financing mechanisms must be complemented with the establishment, collection, and use of development impact fees.

    The term funding and financing mechanism does not include the use of county service areas as these divert property tax revenues that would otherwise go to the County General Fund. The term also does not include the use of home/property owners’ associations.

  • G

    Grazing land. Land on which the existing vegetation, whether grown naturally or through management, is suitable for grazing or browsing of livestock. This classification does not include land otherwise designated as prime farmland, farmland of statewide importance, unique farmland, or farmland of local importance; or heavily brushed, timbered, excessively steep, or rocky lands that restrict the access and movement of livestock.

    Greenhouse gas (GHG). Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. State law identifies seven greenhouse gases for which the California Air Resources Board is responsible to monitor and regulate in order to reduce GHG emissions: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

    Goal. A statement of desired future conditions regarding a particular topic; a goal paints a picture of how something will be in the future. A goal in and of itself is not sufficient to understand its intent, extent, or context. A goal itself is kept simple, with policies, objectives, and implementation actions providing further definition.

    Greywater / graywater. Wastewater that is generated in residential buildings, excluding sewage, such as gently used water from bathroom sinks, showers, tubs, and washing machines. The wastewater generated by toilets, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers is called blackwater due to its larger organic load (fecal or organic matter).

    Groundwater. Water under the earth’s surface, often mapped as basins and confined to aquifers capable of supplying wells and springs.

    Groundwater recharge. The natural process of infiltration and percolation of rainwater from land areas or streams through permeable soils into water-holding rocks that provide underground storage in aquifers. This process can also be conducted artificially by capturing and injecting surface water or recycled water into aquifers.

  • H

    Habitat linkages. Landscape-scale open space areas that provide a natural habitat connection between at least two larger adjacent open spaces or habitat areas. Habitat linkages provide a large enough area to support, at a minimum, a natural habitat mosaic and viable populations of smaller terrestrial species and allow for gene flow through diffusion of populations over a period of generations. Habitat linkages also allow for jump dispersal for some species between neighboring habitats. Habitat linkages may be large tracts of natural open space that serve as resident species habitat or habitat linkages may serve primarily as landscape connections (i.e., for dispersal movements or travel). See also wildlife corridors.

    Harden. The use of site design and materials to make a building or site able to withstand the onset or severity of damage from an event such as a fire, earthquake, flood, or other similar event.

    Hazardous materials. Materials or wastes that either cause or contribute to an increase in mortality, serious illness, or otherwise pose a substantial treat to human or environmental health when improperly managed; see Division 10 (Definitions) of the County Development Code.

    Hazardous waste facilities. Carefully designed off-site facilities accepting hazardous wastes for storage or treatment; see Division 10 (Definitions) of the County Development Code.

    Health professional shortage area (HSPA). A geographic area, population, or facility with a shortage of primary care, dental, or mental health providers and services. The US Health Resources and Services Administration and California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development work together using public, private, and state-provided data to determine when such a shortage qualifies for designation as a HPSA.

    Historic resources. Buildings, structures, sites, or districts that are considered of particular historical and/or cultural significance. Generally, such resources are listed on a local, state, or federal register.

    Historic treatment. The memorialization, preservation, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or restoration of a historic resource.

    • Historic memorialization. Permanent recognition of an important historical resource through such means as a physical plaque or official designation.
    • Historic preservation. A treatment for a historic building or landscape that focuses on the maintenance and repair of existing historic materials and retention of a property’s form as it has evolved over time.
    • Historic reconstruction. A treatment for a historic building or landscape that re-creates vanished or non-surviving portions of a property for interpretive purposes.
    • Historic rehabilitation. A treatment for a historic building or landscape that acknowledges the need to alter or add to a historic property to meet continuing or changing uses while retaining the property’s historic character.
    • Historic restoration. A treatment for a historic building or landscape that depicts a property at a particular period of time in its history, while removing evidence of other periods.

    Holistic approach. An approach that addresses the factors that lead to a condition or behavior as well as the treatment of symptoms or enforcement of laws, in order to prevent a condition or behavior.

  • I

    Impact. Generally, the result of an action or inaction; when the term is used in the context of an environmental analysis under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the term “impact” refers to how a proposed project may directly or indirectly effect specific environmental, infrastructure, and public service factors; a negative impact damages those environmental factors or increases burdens on selected facilities and services).

    Identify. To determine characteristics or facts without any predetermination regarding future commitments; gather information only.

    Include. To make a part of a consideration or issue under public scrutiny.

    Incompatible. To be so opposed in character as to be incapable of existing together without causing conflicts or harm upon one or all parts; conflicting; see also compatible.

    Incorporate. The same as include.

    Inconsistent. Varying to the point of conflict or contradiction; see also consistent.

    Infill development. Development that is constructed on land that has direct access to existing public services and infrastructure.

    Innovative. Methods or approaches that are new and original, often (but not always) more advanced.

    Install. To put in place at a specified time or place or in a particular sequence.

    Integrate. To blend new and existing projects or activities together in a compatible fashion.

    Intensity. For non-residential land uses (such as commercial or retail development) the amount of square footage built on a given site. Expressed typically as floor-to-area ratio (see FAR). The maximum intensity permitted in an area of the unincorporated county is determined by the Policy Plan land use category and corresponding zoning designation.

    Inundation area. A defined area downstream from any dam, basin, or impounded body or source of water (including reservoirs, large above ground water tanks, lakes, etc.) that could be flooded in the event of a sudden or complete failure of the structure. The inundation area or zone can also include levees that are breached or compromised, causing water to flood adjacent areas.

    Investigate. To examine the accuracy of information provided in support of a proposed project, process, or program.

  • J

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  • K

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  • L

    Land use category. Reference term for the classification of generally permitted land use type and intensity as directed by the County Policy Plan; also commonly referred to in other jurisdictions as general plan land use designations. The land use categories are implemented by land use zoning districts, which contain more specific regulations on land use and building standards.

    Land use zoning district. Reference for the classification and regulation of land use type and intensity in the County Development Code. The land use zoning districts implement the land use categories of the Policy Plan.  See also zoning.

    Land Use Map. Reference term for the Policy Plan Land Use Map showing the distribution of land use categories across the unincorporated county.

    Land Use Plan. Reference term that consists of the Policy Plan Land Use Map and tables describing the nature and intensity of development allowed in each Policy Plan land use category.

    Land Use Plan amendment. A proposed change by an applicant or the County in the land use category(ies) of a parcel or set of parcels. Such change requires approval by the County Board of Supervisors.

    Land Use Plan amendment, comprehensive. An evaluation by the County of the appropriate quantity and distribution of that land use category in the entire area (community planning area, unincorporated sphere of influence, or, when outside of such boundaries, the local context defined by the County).

    Landscape-scale conservation. A holistic approach to conservation, concerned with biodiversity and local economies, cultural heritage, agriculture, eco-tourism, geodiversity and the health and social benefits of the environment. Landscape-scale conservation contrasts with site-based conservation and is not merely large-scale conservation.

    Local park. Publicly-owned land designed and maintained to serve the recreation needs of people living or working in close proximity to the park. Neighborhood parks are small (~1 to 15 acres) and offer developed and programmed space and facilities such as playgrounds, picnic areas, fields, community centers, and sports fields for those within approximately one-half mile radius of the park. Community parks are larger (~16 to 99 acres) and are intended to provide recreation opportunities beyond those supplied by neighborhood parks, serving residents from throughout a community or jurisdiction.

    Local trail. A trail typically built, operated, and maintained by a single jurisdiction, district, or agency for access by residents and visitors within a single community or jurisdiction.

    Legacy community. In accordance with state law and guidance provided by the Governor’s Office of Planning and Research and San Bernardino County Local Area Formation Commission, the County used the following criteria to identify disadvantaged unincorporated legacy communities (consistent with Senate Bill 244, 2011):

    • Located outside of city/town limits and spheres of influence of any city/town;
    • Inhabited and has been for at least 50 years (also referred to as a legacy community);
    • Consists of at least 10 dwelling units in close proximity (approximately 1-mile radius); and
    • Median household income for the census tract less than 80% of the statewide median.

    The County must conduct a high level evaluation of the potable water, wastewater treatment, stormwater drainage, and structural fire protection service needs and resources for legacy communities.

    Level of service (LOS) (standard). A qualitative measure describing the delivery of service based on the needs and/or desires of customers or users. A LOS standard also generally factors in financial constraints (e.g., amount of user fees or taxes), as well as physical constraints (e.g., topography or distance).  In measuring traffic conditions, it is the measurement and categorization of traffic flow based on vehicle speed, density, congestion, and other elements.

    Limit. To confine a project or activity within prescribed specifications or performance criteria.

    Link. To connect a project, area, function, or activity to another feature or features that would be mutually beneficial and reinforce desired functions.

    Locate. To place an improvement, function, or use in a particular locale, on property with certain characteristics, or in proximity to specified features to bring about benefits and/or efficiency.

  • M

    Master planned communities. A residential development that also includes recreational and commercial amenities, and can also include local retail stores, businesses, and other employment opportunities. Master planned communities are typically built in phases with coordinated transportation and infrastructure improvements, a variety of housing types, and long-term public and private funding mechanisms.

    Maintain. To keep a system, facility, area, or activity in continuously sound condition, as defined by approved standards.

    May. To offer the possibility but not the probability or promise of a certain commitment of resources or support; associated with action or activity that is often desirable and allowed, but implementation of such action or activity is often conditional.

    Military activity / operations. Testing, training, or other activities conducted by the military (personnel or equipment) within or outside of a military installation.

    Military installation. The land and facilities within a specific boundary identified by the US Department of Defense. The five military installations in (wholly or partially) San Bernardino County are: Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center/Marine Corps Air Ground Task Force Training Command (MCAGCC/MAGTFTC), Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake, and Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow.

    Mines, legacy abandoned. Mines that ceased operation before state and federal laws required reclamation of mined land.

    Minimize. To reduce something to the smallest amount or degree feasible.

    Ministerial. An action taken by a governmental agency that follows established procedures and rules and does not call for the exercise of judgment in deciding whether to approve a project.

    Mitigation bank. A wetland, stream, or other aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or (in certain circumstances) preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act or a similar state or local wetland regulation. A mitigation bank may be created when a government agency, corporation, nonprofit organization, or other entity undertakes these activities under a formal agreement with a regulatory agency.

    Monitor. To track the performance of a particular physical condition, activity accomplishment or aspect of change, with a view toward using the results to inform County determination of its appropriate commitments.

    Mutual aid. Mutual aid is assistance that, based on a contractual agreement, is dispatched on an as-needed and requested basis between two emergency service departments, communities, or districts when an emergency occurs. It differs from automatic aid, which is dispatched automatically.

  • N

    Never. Something (e.g., action or land use) will not take place or occur under any circumstance.

    New development. On land in the unincorporated area, any construction of new buildings or construction of new structures that are the primary use, and any subdivision or change in zoning classification.

    New lot. On land in the unincorporated area, any lot that is created (recorded) after the adoption date of the Policy Plan. The term applies to lots created through a parcel map or subdivision map.

    Notify. To advise a specified party or parties regarding an event or change for which there is an obligation to inform or need to know.

  • O

    Objective (Business Plan). Something that an individual’s, group’s, or organization’s efforts are intended to attain; something designed to achieve specific results.

    Overdraft. The condition of a groundwater supply in which the average annual amount of water withdrawn by pumping exceeds the average annual amount of water replenishing the aquifer in any ten year period, considering all sources of recharge and withdrawal.

    Overdraft, critical. A groundwater basin is subject to critical conditions of overdraft when continuation of present water management practices would probably result in significant adverse overdraft-related environmental, social, or economic impacts. Groundwater basins “subject to critical conditions of overdraft that are assigned a high or medium priority by the State Department of Water Resources must be managed under a groundwater sustainability plan by January 31, 2020. Groundwater sustainability plans, or their equivalent, must be established for all other high and medium-priority basins by January 31, 2022.

  • P

    Partner. To join with another entity in conducting an activity or building a facility that would be mutually beneficial and add value more efficiently than if pursued independently; does not necessarily require financial commitments. Similar to “cooperate”.

    Periodically. The action will take place or apply to future decisions at specified intervals or times.

    Policy. A statement that guides decision-making and specifies public commitment. A policy defines and directs how the County intends to achieve goals.

    Policy Plan. A compendium of long-term goals and policies intended to guide decision making regarding the improvement and planning of the county unincorporated areas, as well as the provision of regional and local services and facilities. The Policy Plan also provides the high-level direction for implementing programs and ordinances, such as the County Development Code.

    The Policy Plan legally functions as the County’s general plan. A general plan is a legal document required of each local agency by the State of California (see Government Code Section 65300 et seq.). In California, a general plan must address at least eight mandatory topics (land use, circulation, housing, conservation, noise, open space, safety, and environmental justice), and may include any number of optional topics (such as air quality, economic development, and health and wellness).

    There is no requirement that the County refer to the document as a general plan, and other jurisdictions may refer to their general plan as a comprehensive plan. The County opted to refer to its general plan as the County Policy Plan to reflect its expanded topical and geographic coverage.

    Prevent. To keep a particular use, condition, activity, or circumstance from occurring; it does not imply complete (100 percent) avoidance or elimination.

    Preserve. To maintain something in its original or existing state (verb). An area dedicated to the protection and conservation of biological resources and/or landscapes (noun).

    Principle. An assumption, fundamental rule, or doctrine that guides Policy Plan policies, proposals, standards, and implementation measures.

    Prohibit. To absolutely disallow something from happening or being built.

    Promote. To actively stimulate the likelihood and desirability of something happening; does not require investing public resources in its direct development.

    Protect. To shield from damage to people or property.

    Provide. To make something available, typically to a community, organization, or business; it does not imply that the thing is being made available at no cost.

    Public infrastructure. Capital facilities that are owned and maintained by public entities, including but not limited to: flood control, water, sewer, transportation, parks, law and justice, fire prevention and protection, public health, and facilities for parks, recreation, and other community services.

    Public water system. A system for the provision of water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances that has 15 or more service connections or regularly serves at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year, or as otherwise defined in the California Health and Safety Code. The three main types of public water systems are: community, transient-noncommunity, and nontransient, noncommunity.

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  • R

    Ranged activities or projects. Civilian activities or projects that can exert impacts beyond a project’s boundaries and create compatibility issues with military activity.

    Recidivism. A person’s relapse into criminal behavior; a subsequent criminal adjudication or conviction while on probation supervision.

    Recycled water. Water which, as a result of treatment of waste, is suitable for a direct beneficial use or a controlled use that would not otherwise occur and is therefore considered a valuable resource. A form of water reuse that includes primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater to produce water suitable for a variety of non-potable applications, most notably for landscaping irrigation and industrial uses. Recycled water is synonymous with “reclaimed water,” “Title 22 Water” (water that conforms to the Uniform Statewide Recycling Criteria), and “treated wastewater.”

    Redevelopment, significant. The addition or replacement of 5,000 or more square feet of impervious surface on an already developed site, including, but not limited to: expansion of a building footprint; addition of a building or structure; addition of an impervious surface, such as construction of a new parking lot that is not part of a routine maintenance activity; and replacement of imperious surfaces, buildings or structures when 5,000 or more square feet of soil is exposed during replacement construction. It does not include routine maintenance activities conducted to maintain original line and grade, hydraulic capacity, or the original purpose of a facility.

    Reflect. To embody or represent (something) in a faithful or appropriate way.

    Region / regional. A geographic area; or pertaining to activities or economies at a scale greater than that of a single jurisdiction, and affecting a broad geographic area. In the Countywide Plan, the term may refer to the Inland Empire (generally considered San Bernardino and Riverside counties), Southern California, or to San Bernardino County subareas with similar features or characteristics (e.g. Valley, Mountain, North Desert, and East Desert regions).

    Regional park. A park typically 100 acres or larger focusing on activities and natural features not included in most other types of parks and often based on a specific scenic or recreational opportunity. A regional park may have any combination of developed, undeveloped, programmed, and unprogrammed space. A regional park is primarily intended to serve residents within an hour’s drive, although it may also serve the entire county in some capacity.

    Regional trail. A trail typically extending for very long distances across multiple jurisdictions, with operation and maintenance often coordinated and funded by multiple jurisdictions and/or agencies.

    Report. To provide public information on a subject or condition.

    Require. To absolutely impose an obligation or standard.

    Resiliency. The ability to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for, withstand, and rapidly recover from disruption or disasters.

    Respect. To give due regard for something or to hold something in high regard.

    Rural. Development patterns characterized predominantly by very low density housing development and limited amounts of low intensity commercial buildings in proximity to large natural areas or open space. Rural development often has limited infrastructure (e.g., onsite septic, onsite wells, unpaved roads, etc.).

  • S

    Safe yield. The maximum quantity of water that can be annually withdrawn from a groundwater aquifer without resulting in overdraft, without adversely affecting aquifer health, and without adversely affecting the health of associated lakes, streams, springs and seeps or their biological resources. The safe yield of an aquifer can be increased by management actions such as artificial recharge, including infiltration and other similar actions.

    Sensitive land uses. Types of facilities that the California Air Resources Board recommends being protected from sources of air pollution. Sensitive land uses include residences, childcare centers, educational institutions, medical facilities, senior care facilities, and parks and recreation facilities.

    Shall. Will always be carried out or required; no exceptions.

    Shared parking. A land use strategy that optimizes parking capacity, reduces the amount of land developed, and promotes connectivity by allowing complementary land uses to share parking spaces, rather than producing or requiring separate spaces for separate uses.

    Should. Will be carried out or required most of the time, unless a very good reason is identified why an exception is acceptable.

    Social capital. An intangible resource that community members can draw upon to solve collective problems. It consists of social trusts, norms, and networks that can alleviate societal problems. Civic engagement encourages feelings of reciprocity between community members and facilitates coordination, communication, and collaboration. Social capital can also be understood by examining community events, organizations, facilities, and participants.

    Sometimes. Will apply to future decisions under specified conditions or circumstances.

    Specify. To establish distinct requirements.

    Sphere of influence (SOI). The probable physical boundary and service area of a local agency, such as an incorporated city or town or a special district, as determined by the local agency formation commission (LAFCO). SOIs are planning tools used to provide guidance for individual proposals involving jurisdictional changes, and are intended to encourage the efficient provision of organized community services and prevent duplication of service delivery. A territory must also be within a city or district’s sphere in order to be annexed.

    While a city/town SOI can include both incorporated and unincorporated lands, the unincorporated lands remain within the jurisdictional control of the county until such time that the land is annexed into the city/town. A city/town is obligated to consider its unincorporated SOI in its general plan, although the county’s planning authority remains in place.

    Strive. To make great efforts or devote serious effort to achieve or obtain something.

    Sufficient buildable area. Able to conform to current development standards and requirements from local, state, and federal agencies.

    Suburban. Development patterns characterized predominantly by a mix of very low to medium density single family housing and multifamily housing development, interspersed with retail, office, industrial, and public or quasi-public facilities. Suburban development is often supported by investments in water, sewer, and roadway infrastructure.

    Support. To provide assistance or promotion; see encourage.

    Sustainable. Able to use a resource or conduct activity at a desired rate or level without depleting resources (e.g., financial or natural) to a point where others cannot rely upon or use them in the future; in some context the term can refer to the long-range viability of the environment, economy, and social equity (referred to as “the three E’s of sustainability”).

  • T

    Trucking-intensive business. In the context of defining a trucking-intensive business, a truck is a vehicle identified by the Federal Highway Administration vehicle as Class 5 or higher, with the exception of dually trucks and recreational vehicles. A trucking-intensive business is a permitted use that includes the frequent use of trucks as part of its primary activities. Examples include: truck yards, logistics facilities, hazardous materials or waste facilities, container storage, and container parking. Excluded from this definition is commercial vehicle storage in residential areas as permitted in the County Development Code.

  • U

    Upstream issues. Conditions, such as food insecurity, that exist prior to and contribute to a person’s undesirable medical, social, financial, or legal circumstance.

    Urban. Development patterns characterized by higher density residential and/or nonresidential development served by frequent transit service and public infrastructure.

  • V

    Value (Community Action Guide). A shared asset, principle, standard, social more, and in the judgement of the community, what is important in the lives of its residents and businesses.

    Vulnerable population or community. Populations or communities that experience heightened risk and increased sensitivity to natural disasters, emergencies, or severe weather events or conditions; and have less capacity and fewer resources to cope with, adapt to, or recover from such events or conditions.

  • W

    Watermaster. A board or committee appointed by a court to oversee an adjudicated water basin, fulfilling the obligations set forth in a stipulated judgement containing a declaration of rights of the water users and other entities for a specific groundwater basin.

    We (Community Action Guide). The collective of community residents, business owners, property owners, service providers, and other stakeholders; distinct from the usage of “we” in the Policy Plan.

    We (Policy Plan). The County of San Bernardino government body; distinct from the usage of “we” in the Community Action Guides.

    Wildlife corridor. A wildlife corridor can be defined as a linear landscape feature of sufficient width to allow animal movement between two comparatively undisturbed habitat fragments. Wildlife corridors are similar to linkages, but provide specific opportunities for animals to disperse or migrate between areas. Adequate cover is essential for a corridor to function as a wildlife movement area. It is possible for a habitat corridor to be adequate for one species yet, inadequate for others. Wildlife corridors are significant features for dispersal, seasonal migration, breeding, and foraging. Additionally, open space can provide a buffer against both human disturbance and natural fluctuations in resources.

    Williamson Act (WA). Also known as the California Land Conservation Act of 1965, the WA creates an arrangement whereby private land owners contract with local governments to voluntarily restrict land to agricultural and open-space uses. The vehicle for these agreements is a rolling term 10-year contract (i.e., unless either party files a “notice of nonrenewal” the contract is automatically renewed annually for an additional year). In return, restricted parcels are assessed for property tax purposes at a rate consistent with their actual use (which is typically very low based on agricultural or open space usage), rather than potential market value.

    Contracts may be exited at the option of the land owner or local government by initiating the process of term nonrenewal. Contract cancellation involves a comprehensive review and approval process, as well as a fee equal to 12.5 percent of the full market value of the subject property. Other circumstances and processes may also apply.

    See also agricultural preserve.

    Wind erosion hazard area. Wind erosion is the process of detachment, transport, and deposition of soil by wind. Wind erosion potential is determined based on the type of soil present in an area and the area’s average wind speed.  A wind erosion hazard area is an area where the potential for wind erosion is categorized as medium-high or high, and is therefore an area where wind-blown soil could be a hazard for buildings and other structures.

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  • Z

    Zoning. The division of a jurisdiction by legislative regulations into areas (aka land use zoning districts), which specify allowable uses for real property and size restrictions for buildings within these areas; a program that implements policies and the land use categories of the Policy Plan.